Pathobiology of Heterakis gallinarum mono-infection and co-infection with Histomonas meleagridis in layer chickens. Schwarz A(1), Gauly M, Abel H, Daş G . We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds.

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Heterakis gallinarum also has papillae, which are sensory structures surrounding the lip region. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

Articles with ‘species’ microformats. You may be interested in an article in this site on medicinal plants against external and internal parasites. In addition, rearing the birds on hardware cloth assists in the elimination this parasite.

Pasture rotation is also recommended. It is more abundant in traditional farming with outdoor run than in industrial production facilities. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Males have hsterakis flaps alae and a copulatory bursa with two unequally long spicules f or attaching to the female during copulation.

Birds can ingest infected H.

Parasitic nematodes of tetrapods Parasites of birds Ascaridida Parasitic diseases. To prevent or at least reduce Heterakis infections it is recommended to keep the birds’ bedding as dry as possible and to frequently change it, because development of the worm’s eggs needs humidity.


Heterakis is a genus of parasitic roundworms belonging to the pinworms that infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, grouse, quails, pheasants, guinea fowls and other heteraakis and wild birds. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome. Upon ingestion gallinaruj a host, the embryonated eggs hatch into second-stage juveniles in the gizzard or duodenumand are passed to the cecum.

These worms do not affect dogscats, cattle sheep, goats, horses or swine. International Journal for Parasitology4 5: Labial sense organs of the nematode, Heterakis gallinarum.

The Journal of Parasitology63 3: Heterakis gallinarum is not directly preyed upon, but eggs which have been released into the soil can be eaten by other bird species, earthworms, and insects such as flies and grasshoppers.

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Details Written by P. The worms have a tubular digestive system with two openings, the mouth and the anus. The eggs of H. Heterakis gallinarum is a parasite of galliform birds, feeding upon their cecal contents. The most relevant species for domestic birds are: Heavy infections can cause inflammation and thickening of the cecum, appearance of nodules and numerous small bleedings in the cecal wall, especially in turkey.


They are highly recommended in flocks with a past history of histomoniasis.


Heterakis gallinarum is found worldwide in areas where galliform birds live. Heterakis eggs are not longer than 77 micrometers.

There are a no reports on confirmed resistance of Heterakis worms to anthelmintics. Earthworms are often paratenic hosts for the eggs of H. The reproductive potential of Heterakis gallinarum in various species of galliform birds: Located anteriorly, these invaginations of the cuticle gallinarumm made of many neurons which interpret and transmit incoming chemical signals.

This means that if an anthelmintic fails to achieve the expected efficacy against Heterakis worms it is most likely that either the product was unsuited for the control of these wormsor it was used incorrectly. The eggs can survive in the soil for long periods of time, especially when a large amount of plant growth is present. Views Read Edit View history. Their development is completed in the lumenbut some may enter the mucosa and remain for years without further development.