Definition. The Gadaa system is an indigenous egalitarian democratic system practiced among the Oromo nation of East Africa for the last six. Oromo society was structured in accordance with this Gada system. The Oromo society was structured into two distinct but cross-cutting system. They also say investigating Oromo society without considering the Gadaa System is merely like a man walking without a skeleton. In fact, many.

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Their position is determined by the position of their sons. AllAfrica publishes around reports a aystem from more than news organizations and over ssystem institutions and individualsrepresenting a diversity of positions on every topic.

The councilors are elected and proclaimed as leaders of their group or class at the beginning of grade IV. This is the turning point in the Gada cycle. In the middle of the deliberations he intervenes to make sure that a topic is meant to be in the meeting for discussion rather than debate. Baxter and Uri Almagor eds. Publishers named above each report are responsible for their syatem content, which AllAfrica does not have the legal right to edit or correct. Within the System, there is a thanks-giving ceremony known as Irrecha nationally celebrated at Lake Arsadi.

Following this event all participants burst into joy ibid: Discussion, Dialogue, or Deliberation. These cultural spaces are legally and culturally protected.

The transition into this final grade is formally take place by rite of incense exchange Qumbi wal irraa fuudhuu. Oromo elites, Abba Gadaa father of Gadaahistorians most often say that it is impossible to know about Oromo’s background without understanding the ruling scheme of the Gadaa System.

In the Gadaa System both Kallachaa and Caaccuu are the ritual materials used for demonstration of the Oromo society at large. A number of scholars have studied Gadaa.

However, gadax Gadaa had all the shortcomings and problems like that of the monarchial Oromo and monarchial non-Oromo Ethiopian systems of governance. Then, ssytem sons join the Gada System and collectively as a class pass through the five grades daballe, junior game, senior game, kussa, raba dorithe abbaa raagaa oral historians teach the sons argaa- dhageettii eyewitness accounts and oral traditions about history, laws, rituals, time reckoning, cosmology, myth, rules of conduct as well as the function and importance of the Gada System.


But, they have given information on their reference to African societies that used to live along the Nile Valley and around East African peoples. One is the system in which the members of each class are recruited strictly on the basis of chronological systrm which the anthropologists call Age Sets.

Geographical location and range of the Gada system Major Oromo clans have established the centres of their Gaaa at several places based on their territorial settlement.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hence it creates the sense of imagining people without law, order and closure of government where an offender goes unpunished and all other laws will be null and void. The entire class progresses through gdaa different grades, each based on an eight-year cycle, and each with its own set of rights and responsibilities. The basic rule of the Gada system is that the newly born infant child always enters the system of grades exactly forty years after his father, regardless of the age of the son or the father.

A brief summary description of the Gada system The Oromo are known for their remarkable indigenous democratic socio-political system known as the Gada which they have kept working for the last five centuries. They are greatly honoured; their blessings are sought by women.

As such, he plays an indispensable role in power transfer occasions and legitimizing the ruling Gada System.

Gadaa – Wikipedia

And ordered the man to teach peoples of Walaabuu. The transition rituals by which the genealogical social group the sons passes from one grade to the next is performed every eight years during the life cycle. The innocent person is called ‘Garraamitichaa’ which literary means an old innocent man of Walabuu. Read the original article on Ethiopian Herald. Most of the time possessor of ‘Kallachaa’ can possess Bokkuu the sign of political power.

Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities

Within forty years, all five parties serve their nation constituting ‘One Gadaa’. The names reflect the especial events that took place in the specified period of eight years. And they begin to grow a new hairstyle to represent their new status.


Here we can see the enormous contribution of Qaalluu institution in Oromo’s politics. Finally, upon completion of the series of deliberations he asks: The Gada System distributes power across generations and down to community members, creates strong link between successive generations, and gives to the members of the community a sense of identity and continuity. Oromo philosophy, art and calendar are based on Gada as an expression of Oromo civilization.

There were many age sets under each grade and many Cibras under one age set. Therefore it is used in rain making ceremony, in prayers to get children etc.

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For Jalata, Gadaa represents “the totality of Oromo civilization”. Similarly, studies conducted on African civilization also gives some details on the evolution and development of Gadaa System. Gada functions as a system of cooperation, social integration, enforcement of moral conduct and principle of peaceful co-existence with other ethnic groups.

Abbaa Kallachaa and Haadha Caaccuu were sgstem from other member of the society by possessing the ritual objects of Kallachaa and Caaccuu to play pivotal role syztem socio-political and religious life of the Oromo society. The most remarkable account of Oromo military organization is to be found in the Chronicle of Emperor Sussenyos who in his youth grew up among the Oromo as war captive.??

Today the Gada institutions have been preserved among the Borana and Guji clans of the Oromo nation. Legesse [2] has written that Gadaa is “one of the most astonishing and instructive turns the evolution of human society has taken”. In general, according to Oromo’s societal perspective, Qaalluu institution act as a mediator between Waaqaa God and the Oromo society.

The existing differentiation of functions and minimal ranking does not imply inequality or hierarchy. As to the study, age-set type of organizations might have begun when the society needed to sustain social order among themselves and to repel their rivals that were competing with them for land, water and power.